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Make Magazine Vol 26

 

Movement / Posture / Pressure

How to measure it:
Video (e.g. Kinect)
Accelerometers
Flex sensors
Pressure / force sensors

Dopper effect - https://research.microsoft.com/en-us/um/redmond/groups/cue/soundwave/

What it can tell you:
Activity level
Measure walking / sitting / laying down
Measure force of steps
Heading direction (e.g. North)
Body position / proprioception
Biometric ID

How it can be used:
Gesture detection
Posture correction
Monitor activity during wake/sleep
Corrective shoes to reduce force on joints
Measure force of football player's concussions
Monitor force of boxer's punches

Supplies Links:
Kinect - http://www.xbox.com/en-GB/kinect
Accelerometer - http://www.sparkfun.com/commerce/product_info.php?products_id=879
Flex sensor - http://www.sparkfun.com/commerce/product_info.php?products_id=8712
wii tilt - http://www.sparkfun.com/commerce/product_info.php?products_id=8563
Pressure sensor with I2C out - http://www.sparkfun.com/commerce/product_info.php?products_id=9478
Force sensitive resistor - http://www.sparkfun.com/commerce/product_info.php?products_id=9375
DIY information - http://www.cc.gatech.edu/ccg/resources/btacc/
Hackables:
Wiitilt - http://www.sparkfun.com/commerce/product_info.php?products_id=8563
Kinect - http://www.xbox.com/en-GB/kinect
Wakemate Actigraphy - http://wakemate.com/about/
Fitbit - http://www.fitbit.com/product
BodyMedia Fit - http://www.bodymedia.com/
Bodybugg Armband Sensor - http://www.bodybugg.com/science_behind_bodybugg.php

References:
Moeslund et al. 2006, A survey of advances in vision-based human motion capture and analysis.


 

Temperature

How to measure it:
Temperature sensor
Infrared (IR) thermography camera

What it can tell you:
Fever / hypothermia
Activity levels / patterns

How it can be used:
Illness detectors

Monitor activity
Night vision

Supply links:
Temperature sensor with serial out - http://www.sparkfun.com/commerce/product_info.php?products_id=245
Temperature sensor with analog out - http://www.sparkfun.com/commerce/product_info.php?products_id=9438
Fever Alert cameras - http://www.palmerwahl.com/fever-alert-products.php
Bodybugg Armband Sensor - http://www.bodybugg.com/science_behind_bodybugg.php

 

Muscle activity

How to measure it:
EMG (electromyography) - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electromyography
meaure the differential voltage from two electrodes on the skin and amplify the signal.



What it can tell you:
Occurence of muscle contractions
Strength of muscle contractions

How it can be used:
Monitor movement
Natural User Interfaces - https://getmyo.com/
Monitor stress/tension
Art / music -
http://www.keyofj.com/PROJECTS/MULTI-SENSORY/multi-sensory-art.html
http://www.sciandmed.com/mppa/journalviewer.aspx?issue=1091&article=1004&action=1

Supply links:
EMG electrodes - http://www.electrodestore.com/EMG/EMG.lasso?ran=13151B06&S=6&T=oops
DIY information: A modified EKG circuit will likely work for EMG measurements if you put the two differential electrodes closer together - http://www.produceconsumerobot.com/heartfeltapparel/


 

Organ Volume

How to measure it:
Plethysmography - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plethysmograph
Stretch sensor


What it can tell you:
Organ health
Arousal

How it can be used:
Diagnostic for medical intervention
Enhanced social interaction

Supplies Links:
Stretch sensors with resistance out - http://www.robotshop.com/images-scientific-4inch-stretch-sensor.html
DIY information -  http://www.instructables.com/id/Circular-Knit-Stretch-Sensor/

 

Respiration

How to measure it:
EMG
Microphone
Stretch sensor
Proximity sensor
Kinect - http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5soUDaIxXcY
Camera - http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_embedded&v=ONZcjs1Pjmk#t=3m30s
Pressure sensor
Doppler Radar

What it can tell you:
Breathing rate
Breathing depth
Activity level
Arousal level

How it can be used:
Biofeedback
Health monitoring
Excersize monitoring
Marketing, focus groups
Art - http://cl.itri.org.tw/~mediaart/blog/?p=132&cpage=1
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9AUEI_2BpNE
Polygraph - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Polygraph


Supplies Links:
EMG electrodes - http://www.electrodestore.com/EMG/EMG.lasso?ran=13151B06&S=6&T=oops
EKG circuit will work for EMG measurements if you put the two differential electrodes closer together -
http://img132.imageshack.us/img132/7010/frontendcp3.jpg
http://www.eecs.umich.edu/~prabal/teaching/eecs598-w10/readings/SLAA280A.pdf
Proximity sensors - http://www.sparkfun.com/products/8959
Stretch sensors with resistance out - http://www.robotshop.com/images-scientific-4inch-stretch-sensor.html
DIY information -  http://www.instructables.com/id/Circular-Knit-Stretch-Sensor/


 

Heart Rate / Heart Rate Variability

How to measure it:
Microphone
Photoplethysmography (PPG, pulse-ox)

Camera - http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_embedded&v=ONZcjs1Pjmk#t=1m52s
https://itunes.apple.com/us/app/instant-heart-rate-heart-rate/id409625068?mt=8
Doppler radar
Electrocardiogram (ECG/EKG)



What it can tell you:
Health
Activity level
Emotional cues


Appelhans et al. 2006.

How it can be used:

Biofeedback
Polygraph - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Polygraph
Health monitoring
Excersize monitoring
Marketing, focus groups
Art -
Emergence


http://www.lozano-hemmer.com/projects.php
http://www.lozano-hemmer.com/pulse_park.php

Fashion - http://produceconsumerobot.com/heartfeltapparel/

http://artandprogram.com/butterflydress/


Supplies Links:
EKG monitor using iphone microphone - http://itunes.apple.com/app/heart-monitor/id291845681?mt=8
Exercise straps -
Polar/NuMetrex
http://www.sparkfun.com/commerce/product_info.php?products_id=8661
http://www.polarusa.com/us-en/products/accessories/WearLink_transmitter

Garmin/Suunto http://www.sparkfun.com/commerce/product_info.php?products_id=8565
https://buy.garmin.com/shop/shop.do?pID=10996
http://www.suuntowatches.com/Suunto-Coded-Heart-Rate-Belt.pro
Zyphyr bluetooth module - http://www.zephyr-technology.com/9600.0112.html
DIY information: http://www.produceconsumerobot.com/heartfeltapparel/
Polar hand sensors (for use with PolarCHR boards below)

Buy it here $20 - https://www.paypal.com/cgi-bin/webscr?cmd=_s-xclick&hosted_button_id=2JLLDSR6HQVLU
Polar hand sensor boards - PolarCHR (datasheet here)

Buy it here $70 - https://www.paypal.com/cgi-bin/webscr?cmd=_s-xclick&hosted_button_id=3CXUMP85PBNZA

References:
Appelhans et al. 2006. Heart Rate Variability as an Index of Regulated Emotional Responding.
Tavakolian et al. 2008. Development of a Novel Contactless Mechanocardiograph Device.


 

Oxygen Level / Blood Volume / BVP

How to measure it:
Pulse oximetry - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pulse_oximetry


What it can tell you:
Activity level
Emotional cues
- Increasing blood volume: angry, stress
- Decreasing blood volume: sadness, relaxation


How it can be used:
Biofeedback
Polygraph - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Polygraph
Health monitoring
Excersize monitoring
Games - http://www.engadget.com/2009/06/02/nintendo-wii-vitality-sensor-detects-your-pulse/
Marketing, focus groups
Fashion


Supplies Links:
http://www.savelives.com/cgi-bin/instock.pl?thisaction=step2&group=3&subgroup=4&fquery=&begin=0&itemnum=bcidfpa&itemspot=0
Wii vitality sensor - http://www.engadget.com/2009/06/02/nintendo-wii-vitality-sensor-detects-your-pulse/
DIY information: http://innovexpo.itee.uq.edu.au/2003/exhibits/s363328/thesis.pdf
http://suchamagicworld.blogspot.com/2008/04/still-alive-heartbeat-irsensor-report.html

 

Blood Pressure

How to measure it:
Blood pressure cuff
Pulse Transit Time (PTT)  

References:
Allen 2007. Photoplethysmography and its application in clinical physiological measurement.
Wong et al. 2009. An Evaluation of the Cuffless Blood Pressure Estimation Based on Pulse Transit Time Technique: a Half Year Study on Normotensive Subjects.


 

Electrodermal Activity (EDA)

Also called Galvanic Skin Reponse (GSR)

How to measure it:
Skin resistance changes caused by eccrine sweat gland release


What it can tell you:
Emotional and physical arousal

How it can be used:
Biofeedback
Polygraph - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Polygraph
Marketing, focus groups
Fashion - http://produceconsumerobot.com/truth/



Supplies Links:
Truth Meter Kit - http://www.makershed.com/ProductDetails.asp?ProductCode=MSGR01
Truth Wristband - http://www.makershed.com/ProductDetails.asp?ProductCode=MKSM1
DIY information: http://www.produceconsumerobot.com/truth/
Bodybugg Armband Sensor - http://www.bodybugg.com/science_behind_bodybugg.php
Q Sensor - http://www.affectiva.com/q-sensor/


 

Facial Expression

How to measure it:
Video
EMG
facial expressions picture

What it can tell you:
Emotional reactions


How it can be used:
Communication
Marketing - http://www.affectiva.com/
Art - "Face Visualizer" http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pLAma-lrJRM&feature=related

Supplies Links:
Avatar Kinect - http://www.xbox.com/en-GB/kinect

 

Eye Tracking

How to measure it:
IR video, pupil tracking and corneal reflection - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eye_tracking
Electrooculography - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electrooculography

What it can tell you:
Where people are looking

How it can be used:

Communication
Marketing
Cursor control - http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vgtr3sH4aY8
Gaming - http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=g3il4fdAOvo

Supplies Links:
Eyewriter - http://www.eyewriter.org/
Seeing Machines Facelab Eye Tracker - http://www.seeingmachines.com/
Opengazer - http://www.inference.phy.cam.ac.uk/opengazer/
Tobii Eye Tracking Equipment - http://www.tobii.com/corporate/start.aspx
Seeing Machines Facelab Eye Tracker - http://www.seeingmachines.com/


 

Pupilometry

How to measure it:
IR video

What it can tell you:
Sympathetic nervous system arousal, e.g. adrenaline

How it can be used:
Communication
Marketing
Biofeedback

Supplies Links:
See above

 

Brain Activity

How to measure it:
Near-infrared spectroscopy - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Near-infrared_spectroscopy
Electroencephalography (EEG) - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electroencephalography



What it can tell you:
Delta waves - slow wave sleep
Alpha rhythms - relaxation
Beta rhythms - alertness / concentration
Gamma rhythms - location specific processing, e.g. gamma over visual cortex indicates visual processing
Evoked potentials - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Evoked_potential
   e.g. N100 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/N100_(neuroscience) results from any unpredictable stimulus

How it can be used:
Communication
Prosthetics - http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oJ-HD4uIKdc
Cursor control - http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mJQ0HqThU4c
Gaming - http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=40L3SGmcPDQ&feature=fvst
Toys - http://www.toysrus.com/product/index.jsp?productId=3531167&CAWELAID=327246034
Marketing, focus groups
Fashion - http://produceconsumerobot.com/thinkingcap/


NeuroWear - http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qvHcBq7UaY0
Art - http://www.publicartfund.org/pafweb/projects/03/mori_s03.html



http://www.theascent.co/#/home
Music - http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/8016869.stm


Supplies Links:
1. Neurosky EEG Headgear
$30-200, mostly single channel dry electrode EEG systems/hackables
http://www.neurosky.com/
mindwave - http://store.neurosky.com/products/mindwave-1
xwave for iphone - http://store.neurosky.com/products/xwave
Chips - http://neurosky.com/Business/ThinkGearChipsets.aspx
OEM - http://neurosky.com/Business/OEM.aspx
neurosky - http://neurosky.com/Business/AcademicPapers.aspx
diy - http://neurosky.com/People/DIY.aspx
Hackable Toys:
Mattel Mindflex Game - http://www.mindflexgames.com/
Uncle Milton Force Trainer - http://unclemilton.com/starwarsscience/
2. Emotiv EPOC EEG Headgear
http://www.emotiv.com/
Wireless EEG headset, $500-750, 14 channel, SDK features depend on price
3. Zeo Bedside
http://www.myzeo.com/sleep/
Wireless EEG strap, $100-150, 1 channel, not clear if new version offers raw data access.
4. OpenEEG circuity
http://openeeg.sourceforge.net/
Open source hardware EEG (see precautions)
DIY information: http://www.produceconsumerobot.com/thinkingcap/
5. Muse
http://interaxon.ca/muse/what-is-muse.php
$199, not much is clear

 
Other Possibilities:
OpenPCR - http://blog.makezine.com/archive/2011/05/putting-the-open-in-openpcr-open-source-biotech.html

Thoughts and Emotions

“… emotion is not a phenomenon but a construct, which is systematically produced by cognitive processes, subjective feelings, physiological arousal, motivational tendencies, and behavioral reactions.” Kim & André 2008.


Cai & Lin 2011.

Some Reading:
Ekman et al. (1983)
Cacioppo et al. (1993, 2000)
Gross & Levenson (1995, 1997)
Vyzas, Picard et al. (MIT Media Lab, 2000)
 
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